Sunday, May 24, 2020
Bessie Coleman, a stunt pilot, was a pioneer in aviation. She was the first African American woman with a pilots license, the first African American woman to fly a plane, and the first American with an international pilots license.Ã She lived fromÃ January 26, 1892 (some sources give 1893)Ã to April 30, 1926 Early Life Bessie Coleman was born in Atlanta, Texas, in 1892, tenth of thirteen children. The family soon moved to a farm near Dallas. The family worked the land as sharecroppers, and Bessie Coleman worked in the cotton fields. Her father, George Coleman, moved to Indian Territory, Oklahoma, in 1901, where he had rights, based on having three Indian grandparents. His African American wife, Susan, with five of their children still at home, refused to go with him. She supported the children by picking cotton and taking in laundry and ironing. Susan, Bessie Colemans mother, encouraged her daughters education, though she was herself illiterate, and though Bessie had to miss school often to help in the cotton fields or to watch her younger siblings. After Bessie graduated from eighth grade with high marks, she was able to pay, with her own savings and some from her mother, for a semesters tuition at an industrial college in Oklahoma, Oklahoma Colored Agricultural and Normal University. When she dropped out of school after a semester, she returned home, working as a laundress. In 1915 or 1916 she moved to Chicago to stay with her two brothers who had already moved there. She went to beauty school, and became a manicurist, where she met many of the black elite of Chicago. Learning to Fly Bessie Coleman had read about the new field of aviation, and her interest was heightened when her brothers regaled her with tales of French women flying planes in World War I. She tried to enroll in aviation school, but was turned down. It was the same story with other schools where she applied. One of her contacts through her job as a manicurist was Robert S. Abbott, publisher of the Chicago Defender. He encouraged her to go to France to study flying there. She got a new position managing a chili restaurant to save money while studying French at the Berlitz school. She followed Abbotts advice, and, with funds from several sponsors including Abbott, left for France in 1920. In France, Bessie Coleman was accepted in a flying school, and received her pilots licenseÃ¢â¬âthe first African American woman to do so. After two more months of study with a French pilot, she returned to New York in September, 1921. There, she was celebrated in the black press and was ignored by the mainstream press. Wanting to make her living as a pilot, Bessie Coleman returned to Europe for advanced training in acrobatic flyingÃ¢â¬âstunt flying. She found that training in France, in the Netherlands, and in Germany. She returned to the United States in 1922. Bessie Coleman, Barnstorming Pilot That Labor Day weekend, Bessie Coleman flew in an air show on Long Island in New York, with Abbott and the Chicago Defender as sponsors. The event was held in honor of black veterans of World War I. She was billed as the worlds greatest woman flyer. Weeks later, she flew in a second show, this one in Chicago, where crowds lauded her stunt flying. From there she became a popular pilot at air shows around the United States. She announced her intent to start a flying school for African Americans, and began recruiting students for that future venture. She started a beauty shop in Florida to help raise funds. She also regularly lectured at schools and churches. Bessie Coleman landed a movie role in a film called Shadow and Sunshine, thinking it would help her promote her career.Ã She walked away when she realized that the depiction of her as a black woman would be as a stereotypical Uncle Tom. Those of her backers who were in the entertainment industry in turn walked away from supporting her career. In 1923, Bessie Coleman bought her own plane, a World War I surplus Army training plane. She crashed in the plane days later, on February 4, when the plane nose-dived. After a long recuperation from broken bones, and a longer struggle to find new backers, she finally was able to get some new bookings for her stunt flying. On Juneteenth (June 19) in 1924 , she flew in a Texas air show. She bought another planeÃ¢â¬âthis one also an older model, a Curtiss JN-4, one that was low-priced enough that she could afford it. May Day in Jacksonville In April, 1926, Bessie Coleman was in Jacksonville, Florida, to prepare for a May Day Celebration sponsored by the local Negro Welfare League. On April 30, she and her mechanic went for a test flight, with the mechanic piloting the plane and Bessie in the other seat, with her seat belt unbuckled so that she could lean out and get a better view of the ground as she planned the next days stunts. A loose wrench got wedged in the open gear box, and the controls jammed. Bessie Coleman was thrown from the plane at 1,000 feet, and she died in the fall to the ground. The mechanic could not regain control, and the plane crashed and burned, killing the mechanic. After a well-attended memorial service in Jacksonville on May 2, Bessie Coleman was buried in Chicago. Another memorial service there drew crowds as well. Every April 30, African American aviatorsÃ¢â¬âmen and womenÃ¢â¬âfly in formation over Lincoln Cemetery in southwest Chicago (Blue Island) and drop flowers on Bessie Colemans grave. Legacy of Bessie Coleman Black flyers founded the Bessie Coleman Aero Clubs, right after her death. the Bessie Aviators organization was founded by black women pilots in 1975, open to women pilots of all races. In 1990, Chicago renamed a road near OHare International Airport for Bessie Coleman. That same year, Lambert - St. Louis International Airport unveiled a mural honoring Black Americans in Flight, including Bessie Coleman. In 1995, the U.S. Postal Service honored Bessie Coleman with a commemorative stamp. In October, 2002, Bessie Coleman was inducted into the National Womens Hall of Fame in New York. Also known as:Ã Queen Bess, Brave Bessie Background, Family: Mother: Susan Coleman, sharecropper, cotton picker and laundressFather: George Coleman, sharecropperSiblings: thirteen total; nine survived Education: Langston Industrial College, Oklahoma - one semester, 1910Ecole dAviation des Freres, France, 1920-22Beauty school in ChicagoBerlitz school, Chicago, French language, 1920
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
INTRODUCCIÃâN. La Sulfadiazina de plata al 1% es un antisÃ ©ptico que se utiliza a menudo en las quemaduras de segundo grado. Nuestro objetivo es realizar una revisiÃ ³n bibliogrÃ ¡fica con diferentes artÃ culos donde se comparan con otras alternativas mÃ ¡s eficaces que hacen que cicatricen antes y alivie el dolor. Para ello hemos escogido artÃ culos que trata tanto en animales, cerdos y seres humanos. QUEMADURAS DE SEGUNDO GRADO (1). DEFINICION. Lesiones producidas por un traumatismo fÃ sico o quÃ mico que conlleva a un daÃ ±o o destrucciÃ ³n de la piel. Las quemaduras de segundo grado o quemaduras de espesor parcial afectan tanto la capa externa como la capa subyacente de la piel, lo que produce dolor, enrojecimiento, inflamaciÃ ³n y formaciÃ ³n de ampollas. Se clasifican en: 1. Quemaduras de segundo grado superficial. Afectan a la epidermis y el tercio superior de la dermis. Son dolorosas y exudativas por lo que presentan flictenas y ampollas intactas sobre un fondo rosado y hÃ ºmedo. El folÃ culo piloso estarÃ ¡ conservado. Adecuadamente tratadas se curan en 15-20 dÃ as. 2. Quemaduras de segundo grado profundas. Afectan a las zonas mÃ ¡s profundas del espesor de la dermis, llegando a la dermis reticular. Las terminaciones nerviosas locales estarÃ ¡n mÃ ¡s daÃ ±adas por lo que tienden a ser menos dolorosas. Presentan flictenas y ampollas rotas y su fondo pasarÃ ¡ de rojo brillante a pÃ ¡lido y moteado a medida que se profundiza. El folÃ culo piloso ca a estar daÃ ±ado, por lo que para valorarShow MoreRelatedDireccion Comercial. Analisis de La Estructura Competitiva de Mercado1489 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages6( AnÃ ¡lisis de la estructura competitiva del mercado 6.1. 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Introduction and Overview 2. The ADR (Alternative Dispute Resolution) Spectrum 3. Negotiation: Principles and Procedures 3.1. Competitive and Integrative Models 3.2. Principles 3.3. Skills 3.4. Cultural and Identity Aspects 3.5. Psychological Aspects
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The cell is the biological basic unit to life .Every existing animal or plant owes its life to the cell. Cells cannot be seen with naked eyes but with the help of equipment called the microscope. We will write a custom essay sample on Letter Assignment Draft or any similar topic only for you Order Now Ã It is the environment that surrounds different, other existences that are in many ways autonomous, merely, independent but also as well as dependant of each other; oop! LetÃ¢â¬â¢s avoid the contradiction and go through this basicÃ¢â¬ Life The entire body of humans is made up of cells-very different many cells- In fact millions and millions of them each with a distinct purpose. It is important for an official of health for instance to understand some, if not all of these cells.  The nucleus; the whole make-up of the cell, every single function and set-up is Ã¢â¬Å"coded forÃ¢â¬ or dictated by this system.Ã Amazingly the system uses a diverse nature in the name of genes.Ã Depending on species each individual has a different number of them (genes), each responsible for a different nature or set up; loading to the formation of a specific cell structure/organelle. As a senior health officer, the understanding about genes is of help in solving problems such as DNA tests. To some extent, such an understanding on genes is also essential in ascertaining and analyzing blood samples before transfusion takes place. The Mitochondria is the energy power.Ã For every single process there is the energy required.Ã The source of this energy is the mitochondria.Ã This organelle breaks down the food through its myriad set of enzymes and packs the product, energy, as pockets of potential power.Ã Power that will in times of need be converted to Kinetic energy in motion/activity. The endoplasmic reticulum.Ã Some rough, some smooth.Ã The rough has the ribosomes, hair like structures in the formation of proteins.Ã Proteins that make-up the other structural cell existence.Ã These proteins will also be used in repair of worn out parts of the cell.Ã Simply; the whole cell has a protein make-up.Ã The smooth endoplasmic reticulum; they are involved in lipid fats and ions transport. Heavy convoluted branched throughout the cell they leep the cell well stacked in the lipid supply. The Golgi apparatus; they pack processed proteins. Packaging them ready for delivery via the cell and settings them to wherever they are required.  Then there are the assembly units in the form of tiny microscopic cylinders called the ribosomes. These are units that form/ manufacture proteins from simple forms (raw materials) in the form of amino acids. These ribosomes are hinged on the endoplasmic reticulum. They give it the appearance of a rugged structure hence the name rough endoplasmic reticulum The lysozymes are a set of enzymatic organelles. They break-down/ digest complex material that has been ingested by the cell. The ingestion of food particles is done by the micropinocytatic vesicle; it engulfs or surrounds a Ã¢â¬Å"palatable substanceÃ¢â¬ and practically makes it Ã¢â¬Å"part of the cellÃ¢â¬ The lysozymes later on leak the enzymatic content, which digests the engulfed particle. The cell has a sound and dependable character. Integrity. The above unit structures can and will be found in a living cell.  The distinction however is slight depending on whether it is a plant or animal cell; 1. The cell membrane is common to plant and animal cells, aquering the organelles; into a defined environment. Acting as the skin 2. The plant cell however has the additional protection of a cell wall. A Ã¢â¬Å"skinÃ¢â¬ covers to the outermost. This affords plants the rigid nature. The plant cell also has other unit structures like;- a.Chloroplasts; responsible for the trapping of light rays and channeling this energy to the manufacture of food. They give plants that distinction color. b.Food vacuole; the food store in plant cells. c.The water vacuole; a distinct store for water.  The cell has it all the organizational set-up each structural unit being a department that functions on its own, as well as one that condinates with the other departments. As a government health officer therefore it is important to ensure that all cells of a human body are functioning properly as the malfunctioning of only one cell might affect the whole body. There is a catch however, that the nucleus; that structural unit that has genes which code/ demand for specific roles to be played by different structural units of the cell. The genes dictating what happens in the cell, fostering both individual talent (departmental autonomy) and team-work (between departments) are the management. The top tier of the cell that does the Ã¢â¬Å"decisionÃ¢â¬ making. The departments/units that form the crux of this cell industry are not far from many existing department especially in the government sector. In function at least. The powerhouse of energy; mitochondria the system that fuels the assembly is likened to the accounts department. The paymaster and motivator. What about the other assembly points, ranging from the Ã¢â¬Å"energy reactionsÃ¢â¬ like the chloroplasts that will provide energy for carbohydrates, protein and vitamin formation. The reticulum system playing the role of transportation and Logistics. The micropinocytotic vesicle doing the sourcing of raw materials. The sublime procements officer. The golgi apparatus; ever packaging and branding processed material. Like any other industry; there is always a better way to present product to the client. The security system cannot be understated. Setting up the perimeter. Defining the limits off the area covered by the industry in the form of the cell membrane and cell wall. You stare at that life so invisible to the naked eye, but surprise is all you have got when that simple nature of life typifies our complex organizational nature.  xxxxxxxxxxxxxxENDxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx This letter should be addressed to a senior government official in the health sector like the Medical Officer of Health. These are the paramedics on the ground on whose fingers and skills hundreds of thousands of people depend for the health to be something to reckon with. They are the researchers, policy makers, the trainers etc. The nature, components and functions of the cell will help him in effecting his roles in a more efficient and effective manner. References Campbell, N. (2004): Biology 7th edition, Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company, New York Mashburn, L. M and Whiteley, M. (2006): Special Delivery: Vesicle Trafficking in Prokaryotes. Ã¢â¬â Ã Mol Microbial 61 (4): 839 Ã¢â¬â 46. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã  Campbell, N. (2004): Biology 7th edition, Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company, New York  Mashburn, L. M and Whiteley, M. (2006): Special Delivery: Vesicle Trafficking in Prokaryotes. Ã¢â¬âÃ Mol Microbial 61 (4): 839 Ã¢â¬â 46.  Mashburn, L. M and Whiteley, M. (2006): Special Delivery: Vesicle Trafficking in Prokaryotes. Ã¢â¬âÃ Mol Microbial 61 (4): 839 Ã¢â¬â 46.  Campbell, N. (2004): Biology 7th edition, Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company, New York  Mashburn, L. M and Whiteley, M. (2006): Special Delivery: Vesicle Trafficking in Prokaryotes. Ã¢â¬âÃ Mol Microbial 61 (4): 839 Ã¢â¬â 46. How to cite Letter Assignment Draft, Essay examples
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Describe about the Perfetto Juice Company?. Answer: Perfetto Juice Company is operating their business in non-carbonated drinks segment that are more focused on the healthier drinks for their customer. Therefore, the factors like customers choice, customer profile, product preference and product availability will come in consideration while targeting a market segment for the fruit juice. The target segment of the fruit juice will be kid first because they have more attraction towards the drink and their guardian will also prefer to provide a healthier drink every time (Ngo et al. 2013). The target segment will also focus on those customers who are highly concerned about their health and do not prefer carbonated drinks. The factors that are influencing the target segment is also the product availability because it will ensure that the target segment will get the product whenever they need. Global business is affected by the recession that has resulted in low volume of the business due to the lower buying capacity of the consumer. Roe of pricing strategy is very important in this situation because company has to sell their product to achieve the organizational objective. The role of pricing strategy in the time of recession is to minimize the profit margin to enhance the affordability to the consumer. The amount of discounts in the bulk purchase should increase, so that buyer consumes more number of drinks. The pricing strategy of the company will therefore play a big role to increase the overall sales (Foxall et al. 2013). The role of pricing strategy is also to increase the competitive advantage in the market as compared to the competitors by reducing the price so that customer prefers to buy it. Perfetto Juice Company has integrated their marketing activities with the corporate social responsibility to get the advantage of ethical consumerism. In their promotional activity, Perfetto Juice has initiated to promote their product in the summer Olympic game where many participants and tourist comes. It will be the biggest advantage for them to advertise the product in such platform that will get the international exposure. The company has also integrated the product quality and the ethical way of their business in their promotional activity. This type of strategy will help the organization to achieve the marketing objective because customers will attach emotionally with the company and their product (Darmon and Drewnowski 2015). The promotional activity of the company also integrates the change in the packaging that is also a scope to communicate to the customers. The change in the packaging provides the opportunity to attract customer every time with the same product. Considering the marketing mix of the product Perfetto Juice Company has implemented the 4Ps of marketing in a different way that is described below. Product The Company has chosen a different product that is produced in a ethical way for their business. The non-carbonated drinks are not getting the advantage therefore, they have chosen a unique fruit juice as their product that has high probability of getting popularity. Price The pricing strategy of the company also differs from the conventional products. The company is using discounts printed in their new packaging that last for three months. Therefore, they are able to sell their product in bulk. Particularly in time of recession, they provide more discounts on bulk purchase that increases the sales. Promotion The promotional activity of the company is associated with the customers emotion therefore attachments builds. The promotion also ensures to inform about the product quality and processing (Dang 2014). Place Products are highly available in 15 countries that help customers to get product whenever they need. Reference List Dang, T., 2014. The success of applying marketing mix 4Ps in Vietnamese dairy industry: Vinamilka typical case. Darmon, N. and Drewnowski, A., 2015. Contribution of food prices and diet cost to socioeconomic disparities in diet quality and health: a systematic review and analysis.Nutrition reviews, p.nuv027. Foxall, G.R., Yan, J., Oliveira-Castro, J.M. and Wells, V.K., 2013. Brand-related and situational influences on demand elasticity.Journal of Business Research,66(1), pp.73-81. Ngo, M.K., Velasco, C., Salgado, A., Boehm, E., ONeill, D. and Spence, C., 2013. Assessing crossmodal correspondences in exotic fruit juices: The case of shape and sound symbolism.Food quality and preference,28(1), pp.361-369.
Thursday, April 2, 2020
Brownfields Essay Brownfields are abandoned, idled or under-used and industrial commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by environmental contamination. These areas are scattered all through out the nation and are more numerous in areas that are industrial centers. The redevelopment of brownfields are supported by all agencies of the government, the Department of Transportation made a policy that would enable the availability of funds for the redevelopment of brownfields, the DOT believed that brownfield redevelopment with transportation programs can bring new jobs, services and amenities to a neighborhood, reduce vehicle miles of travel, reduce time spent in congestion and increase the viability of transit, walking and biking. Brownfields and transportation are connected in ways that create opportunities to accomplish transportation, economic, community and environmental goals. Transportation facilities play a major role in commerce and industry, in the past industrial plants were always located near transportation facilities. However, transportation and economic changes have shifted number industrial operations away from centers of transportation. As the case maybe, transportation is key to brownfield redevelopment, as it gives access to people and goods, this would include fixing existing highways, waterways and public transportation and the other transportation related use of the land like intermodal terminals and bus barns. The local government together with the community are interested in the redevelopment of brownfields as an existing brownfield would lower property values, stifles local investment and be an environmental threat, in the same way the local government see redevelopment as bringing in jobs, increase in taxes and make use of taxpayerÃ¢â¬â¢s investment in infrastructure. Thus, the federal, state and local government coordinates to achieve these goals through the Transportation Improvement Program. To the communities, re-using brownfields through transportation investments would later on bring transportation benefits. We will write a custom essay sample on Brownfields specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Brownfields specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Brownfields specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The redevelopment of brownfields would also improve the environment by lessening or eradicating contamination in these sites. As well as reviving measures to control the quality of water and air and the conservation of open spaces. The protection of open spaces reduces conversion of land to impervious surfaces which is very critical in the maintenance of watershed health. The Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) has a projected budget of $198 billion for transportation spending for 1998 to 2003. The act supports brownfield redevelopment through a number of funding programs. For new highways, roads or bridge construction on brownfields, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s the National Highway System, Surface Transportation Program, Bridges, Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program and the Transportation Enhancements. For the construction of new transit lines or station, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s the Transit Capital Investment Grants and Loans, the Urbanized and Non-urbanized Area Formula Grant Program. The improvement of railroads in brownfields can be funded through the Rail Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing Program. In improving pedestrian and/or bicycle access can be channeled through the National Highway System and the Transportation Enhancements. For recreational trails a funding from Recreational Trails is available and innovative sust ainability projects can be pursued through grants from the Transportation and Community and System Preservation Pilot Program. In order to receive TEA-21 funds to redevelop a brownfield site, a Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) state must have a transportation clause in the project and should be included in the Long-Range Transportation Plan and its Transportation Improvement Program. In general almost all funds allocated under the TEA-21 are disbursed through the standard planning and TIP process. The MPO has the obligation to coordinate with air quality planning and encourage public involvement as required by federal law. The Long-Range Transportation plans are created to project a 20 year transportation development program. The project however needs to satisfy the following criteria to be included in the LRT, the project must help advance state or regional transportation objectives, it should be able to provide information about the financial resources of the project and the impact on air quality of the project should not violate National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Evaluating a brownfield redev elopment project proposal requires reviewing financial, environmental, social and legal considerations of the project. Another means of acquiring federal funding is for the organization or state to apply directly to the DOT for grants and loans provided under the TEA-21, wherein Transportation and Community and System Preservation Pilot grants and the Rail Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing loans are the most relevant to brownfield projects. The TCSP grants were given to innovative transportation projects which must meet the goals of TCSP which includes reducing the impacts of transportation on the environment, reducing the need for costly future public infrastructure investments, to ensure efficient access to jobs, services and centers of trade and lastly examining private sector development patterns and investments that support TCSP goals. In the TCSP program, public entities are eligible to get finds form the federal government without a state or regional MPO intermediary. Municipal governments, MPOÃ¢â¬â¢s, states agencies, school boards, air and park districts and public transit agencies are eligible to apply for the TCSP loan. The Rail Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing Program give out loans and loan guarantees for acquiring, improving, developing or rehabilitating intermodal or rail equipment facilities, this is available to local governments, and government sponsored authorities, corporations, railroads and joint ventures with at least one railroad. In conclusion it was reported that transportations funds can be used to clean up environmental contamination on brownfields if it is a part of the transportation project. It can also be sued to stimulate private sector revitalization of brownfields, as well as provide an opportunity for the collaboration of stakeholders and meeting public goals. Funding is available for such projects but the application process takes a lengthy route and that limited funding is available directly form federal government. There have been a number of projects that involved redeveloping brownfields which ranged from the construction of roads, a new bridge, a parkway and an intermodal terminal. In Portland, Oregon a new road was built to improve access to deepwater port and cleaned up a 2,800-acre Rivergate Industrial District, it also increased the value of land in the industrial area and initiated the expansion of manufacturing and shipping operations. Portland encapsulated the contaminated soils at a former pesticide-formulating plant with new road surface. In Lawrence, Massachusetts a new bridge was constructed to improve transportation access and infrastructure, it supported economic development, it improved pedestrian traffic as well as remediation of environmental contamination.Ã The project not only will clean a downtown brownfield but also create a new park and pedestrian walkway. A parkway in Buffalo, New York linked the industrial areas of Buffalo and the regional road network which then im proved transportation and develop under-used areas which are also brownfields. The construction of the parkway also satisfied American AxleÃ¢â¬â¢s needs for access and re-engineering obsolete infrastructure. Since the project was privately funded it had significant support form federal and state governments. An intermodal terminal in Salt Lake City, Utah was funded by congress with a $40 million budget as part of the brownfield redevelopment. When the Interstate 15 was redesigned it opened an opportunity to develop an old rail yard to an intermodal hub. The city will also be participating in the Utah Voluntary Cleanup Program to serves as a protection form environmental contamination. These examples reiterate that developing brownfields are beneficial to the community although it entails a complex weaving of government and community efforts as well as the liability to ascertain that contamination can be eradicated or managed.
Sunday, March 8, 2020
The Golden Age of Piracy 1700-1725 Piracy, or thievery on the high seas, is a problem that has popped up on several different occasions in history, including the present. Certain conditions must be met for piracy to thrive, and these conditions were never more evident than during the so-called Golden Age of Piracy, which lasted roughly from 1700 to 1725. This era produced many of the most famous pirates of all time, including Blackbeard, Calico Jack Rackham, Edward Low and Henry Avery. Conditions for Piracy to Thrive Conditions have to be just right for piracy to boom. First, there must be many able-bodied young men (preferably sailors) out of work and desperate to make a living. There must be shipping and commerce lanes nearby, full of ships that carry either wealthy passengers or valuable cargo. There must be little or no law or government control. The pirates must have access to weapons and ships. If these conditions are met, as they were in 1700 (and as they are in present-day Somalia), piracy may become common. Pirate or Privateer? A privateer is a ship or individual who is licensed by a government to attack enemy towns or shipping during times of war as a private enterprise. Perhaps the most famous privateer was Sir Henry Morgan, who was given a royal license to attack Spanish interests in the 1660s and 1670s. There was a great need for privateers from 1701 to 1713 during the War of Spanish Succession when Holland and Britain were at war with Spain and France. After the war, privateering commissions were no longer given out and hundreds of experienced sea rogues were suddenly put out of work. Many of these men turned to piracy as a way of life. Merchant and Navy Ships Sailors in the 18th century had a choice: they could join the navy, work on a merchant ship, or become a pirate or privateer. Conditions on board the naval and merchant vessels were abominable. The men were routinely underpaid or even cheated of their wages completely, the officers were strict and harsh, and the ships were often filthy or unsafe. Many served against their will. Navy press gangs roamed the streets when sailors were needed, beating able-bodied men into unconsciousness and putting them on board a ship until it sailed. Comparatively, life on board a pirate ship was more democratic and often more profitable. Pirates were extremely diligent about sharing the loot fairly, and although punishments could be severe, they were rarely needless or capricious. Perhaps Black Bart Roberts said it best, In an honest service there is thin commons, low wages, and hard labor; in this, plenty and satiety, pleasure and ease, liberty and power; and who would not balance creditor on this side, when all the hazard that is run for it, at worst, is only a sour look or two at choking. No, a merry life and a short one shall be my motto. (Johnson, 244) (Translation: In honest work, the food is bad, the wages are low and the work is hard. In piracy, there is plenty of loot, its fun and easy and we are free and powerful. Who, when presented with this choice, would not choose piracy? The worst that can happen is you can be hanged. No, a merry life and a short one shall be my motto.) Safe Havens for Pirates For pirates to prosper there must be a safe haven where they can go to restock, sell their loot, repair their ships and recruit more men. In the early 1700s, the British Caribbean was just such a place. Towns like Port Royal and Nassau thrived as pirates brought in stolen goods to sell. There was no royal presence, in the form of governors or Royal Navy ships in the area. The pirates, possessed of weapons and men, essentially ruled the towns. Even on those occasions when the towns were off-limits to them, there are enough secluded bays and harbors in the Caribbean that finding a pirate who did not want to be found was nearly impossible. The End of the Golden Age Around 1717 or so, England decided to put an end to the pirate plague. More Royal Navy ships were sent and pirate hunters commissioned. Woodes Rogers, a tough former privateer, was made governor of Jamaica. The most effective weapon, however, was the pardon. A royal pardon was offered for pirates who wanted out of the life, and many pirates took it. Some, like Benjamin Hornigold, stayed legit, while others who took the pardon, like Blackbeard or Charles Vane, soon returned to piracy. Although piracy would continue, it was not nearly as bad a problem by 1725 or so. Sources: Cawthorne, Nigel. A History of Pirates: Blood and Thunder on the High Seas. Edison: Chartwell Books, 2005.Cordingly, David. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 1996Defoe, Daniel (Captain Charles Johnson). A General History of the Pyrates. Edited by Manuel Schonhorn. Mineola: Dover Publications, 1972/1999.Konstam, Angus. The World Atlas of Pirates. Guilford: The Lyons Press, 2009Rediker, Marcus. Villains of All Nations: Atlantic Pirates in the Golden Age. Boston: Beacon Press, 2004.Woodard, Colin. The Republic of Pirates: Being the True and Surprising Story of the Caribbean Pirates and the Man Who Brought Them Down. Mariner Books, 2008.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Business Economics 2 - Essay Example 70% of bank funds were diverted to real estate mortgage. The income of families and household was diverted from buying goods and services to buying properties- houses and buildings. A large chunk of money was used in payment of debt service to banks and financial companies. The payment of debt service by the economyÃ¢â¬â¢s non-financial sectors interrupts the circular flow of income supposed to exist between produces and consumers. The problem of financing network became more complex. Britain faced acute credit crisis in the recent periods caused by slack lending practice by banks, financial turmoil caused by dearth of liquidity, extending risky loans to unpredictable parties and passing on to other institutions, excessive dependency on credit rating companies, over dependence on in financial markets or inadequate liquidity risk management. This has put many sectors of the economy at risk such as Ã · UK commercial property sector, Stock markets, First-time buyers, Buy-to-let investors, UKs sub-prime borrowers and many others. There was exponential growth of savings and debt in UK market. They were used mainly for financing the purchase of real estate, stocks and bonds. Net savings donÃ¢â¬â¢t increase in the economy because it is used in re lending for or refinancing assets. This process does not necessarily promote new investment in tangible assets or new factories that add to new employment. No more output is added, no more factors of production is paid. Consumption from household, which accounts for about 70% of GDP, is the basis of production. Exports add to the consumption share because it takes off consumption of other countryÃ¢â¬â¢s consumption also. Consumption of UK in recent years had been 90% that was financed out of the real income of the country and not debt. Consumption by household should flow directly from