Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Policy and Structure of education in different countries

Education is indispensable to last in today ‘s universe. To go on in instruction is non merely good for endurance, but plays a critical function in success and the hunt of ends. Education progresses because engineering and society advancement. Society is altering at a really fast gait therefore doing uninterrupted instruction a necessity in today ‘s trade market. The usage of uninterrupted instruction and the hunt thereof, is important to single success. As important and of import as instruction is, simply obtaining it is non plenty. It should be continuously pursued and used appropriately. Harmonizing to Steyn & A ; Wolhuter ( 2008:2 ) educationalists realize that instruction has restrictions to consequence alterations in society, but instruction is an of import tool which society can utilize to recognize the alterations they want. It is an of import instrument that can non be used by itself, but to help world to fix themselves for the challenges of the 21st century. â€Å" In order for instruction to be an effectual instrument in helping worlds for alteration, the construction and operation of the instruction system, as the vehicle of effectual instruction, should run into certain demands. † ( Steyn & A ; Wolhuter, 2008:2. )Education policyPurposes The purposes of the instruction system point toward the awaited criterions to be reached over a longer term of office or term from approximately five to ten old ages. These purposes signifies the mileposts such as part to society, fulfilling of personal endowments, fulfilling of civic duties, transporting tradition frontward, supplying the engine for economic growing, supplying the work force with the necessary basic ‘academic ‘ accomplishments and supplying persons with chances, enlightenment and cognition to be reached in order to fulfill the vision and mission of that peculiar instruction system. The Aims These are the mileposts to be reached over a shorter period of clip from one to five old ages. These aims have the inclinations to make the purposes of the instruction system, thereby gaining the vision and mission of a peculiar system. Goals The ends of an instruction system find the boundaries wherein the system should work. The end describes the ideal personalities of the underlying beliefs, the educational services, the scholars and the pedagogues as the most of import constituting parts of the instruction system. The end is normally given in more general spiritual, societal, economical and political footings.The construction in generalThe instruction system is a good logically structured and multifaceted entireness dwelling of different parts which can be named the mechanism or subdivisions of the instruction system. These subdivisions are referred to as the instruction system policy, the instruction system disposal, the model for instruction and the support services. Different constituents of the instruction system can be located i.e. the instructions systems Acts of the Apostless, the ministry of instruction, the sections of instruction, school councils and different types of instructions establishments ( Steyn & A ; Wolhuter, 2008:4. ) These systems must be ordered harmonizing to a specific program in order to be an effectual and functional organic structure. The construction for instruction and preparation degrees and plans The degrees on which instruction is being provided in the peculiar instruction system are indicated by the instruction degrees. Conventional degrees in the system are the pre-primary, primary, secondary and third degrees. The school old ages with respect to the degrees may differ from instruction system to instruction system. It is high that the entry points and issue points, mandatory instruction and relevant entry demands with respects to these degrees are explained. The educational plans are reported harmonizing to the topics that are included in each plan on each degree. As a consequence of this, the component presents the organisation of educational plans on the different degrees, through which the educational demands of the mark group are provided for. Education establishments â€Å" This component describes the organisation of instruction establishments on different degrees. † ( Steyn & A ; Wolhuter, 2008:7 ) . The purposes of the instructions establishments every bit good as the correlativity between the different instruction establishments every bit good as the different types of instruction establishments are explained. Curricula and distinction Curriculum and distinction is a unfastened term mentioning to the demand to modify learning environments and patterns to bring forth appropriately different larning experiences for different scholars. Keirouz ( 1993 ) suggests typical processs in the instance of gifted and gifted pupils include: canceling already mastered stuff from bing course of study, adding new content, procedure, or merchandise outlooks to bing course of study, widening bing course of study to supply enrichment activities, supplying class work for able pupils at an earlier age than usual, and composing new units or classs that meet the demands of talented pupils. Learners The human ecology of the scholars is reported on the figure, age, gender, rural or urban colony and makings obtained by the scholars. Admission demands and codifications of behavior, drop-out figures and learner-classroom ratio is besides taking in history. Educators Information sing the human ecology of instructors includes the figure, age, gender and rural or urban distribution. The pre-service and in-service preparation chances of instructors are provided every bit good as other relevant information i.e. codifications of behavior and the instructor scholar ratio. 3.6 Physical installations This is the physical country where instruction is administered. The schoolrooms, talk suites, and research labs should be mentioned. The handiness of necessary installations, the allotment, use and the costs of installations will be indicated.Describe the two constituents in South Africa, Namibia and USAPolicySOUTH AFRICA4.1.1 The purposes and ends of the South- African educational system: In the White Paper on instruction and preparation ( March, 1995 ) the following were accepted as guidelines. It besides includes the National Educational Policy Act: Education and preparation are basic human rights and the province has the duty to protect these rights. All the citizens of South Africa should hold the chance to develop their potencies and contribute to the development of the community. Parents and defenders of kids have the primary duty for the instruction of their kids. The parents have the right to take the signifier of instruction for their kids, capable to the sensible precautions required by jurisprudence. The parents rights include chose of linguistic communication every bit good as the cultural spiritual footing of instruction. The province has the duty to supply aid to those parents who can non themselves decide decently on their educational hereafter of their kids. The educational policy should enable all persons to value, have success to and win in womb-to-tomb instruction and preparation of good quality. The equal entree to basic instruction and preparation which includes more than school instruction should be guaranteed to all. An increasing scope of larning possibilities offering the scholars greater flexibleness in taking should be provided. All the historical inequalities should be redressed. State resources must be deployed harmonizing to the principal of equity to supply the same quality of larning chances for all. The rights of scholars and pedagogues should be equitably protected including the policy of affirmatory action. The proviso of quality instruction and preparation is indispensable and should be provided in an incorporate manner harmonizing to the National Qualification Framework. ( NQF ) . Communities must accept ownership for their schools and legitimate, representative regulating organic structures should be instituted. The rule of democratic administration should progressively be promoted and should be characterized by audience with all relevant involvement groups. The civilization of instruction, larning and direction should be restored and the civilization of answerability should be created. The end of instruction and preparation should be to set up a democratic, free, equal, merely and peaceable society in South Africa. The diverse spiritual, cultural and linguistic communication traditions should be respected and encouraged. Education in the humanistic disciplines should be promoted. Education should advance the common democratic values and the importance of the due procedure of the jurisprudence and civic duty. Education should advance independent and critical idea. Differentiated instruction should fit the scholars with the competences required by the economic system and calling development. Mathematicss, Science and Technology instruction are critical to human apprehension and economic promotion. Environmental instruction should be promoted to help the enjoyment of nice quality of life and sustainable usage of natural resources. The rules of achievability, sustainability, efficiency and productiveness of the RDP should organize the footing of all activities of instruction. 4.1.2 The aims of the National Education Policy Act: The aims of the National Education Policy Act, 1996 ( Act 27 of 1996 ) are to supply for: The finding of national instruction policy by the curate in conformity with certain rules. Guidelines for audiences to be undertaken anterior to the finding of policy and constitution of such organic structures. The publication and execution of policy ; and To supply for the monitoring and rating of instruction.Namibia4.1.1 The purposes and ends of the Namibia educational system: Harmonizing to the Government Policy papers, Toward Education for All – A development Brief for Education, Culture and Training ( 1993 ) , a clear vision was translated. At the helm of, Toward Education for All ( 1993 ) are four major ends: entree, equity, qualities and democracy. For Access it was stated that the Government ‘s first committedness is to supply cosmopolitan Basic Education. Ultimately, every Namibian is to hold twelve old ages of general comprehensive instruction. Basic instruction is intended to guarantee that by the twelvemonth 2000, the bulk of the citizens will hold acquired basic accomplishments of reading, composing, numeracy and understanding socio-cultural procedures and natural phenomena. This is the lone manner we can process with some hope into the following millenary ( Education for All, 1993:33 ) . On the issue of quality instruction, ( Toward Education for All ) puts it that its major committedness is to do our schools good schools and to offer high quality of formal options to formal school ( p.37 ) . It goes on to state that we are all scholars. Learning is a womb-to-tomb activity. Bettering the quality of our schools is a duty we portion. We all have a critical interest in the success of our attempts ( p.40 ) . Namibia devotes a big part of its fiscal resources to instruction in every fiscal twelvemonth. The basic instruction sector, primary and secondary degrees, receives more money while the third sector comes 2nd in the precedence of instruction outgo. The freshly elected authorities of Namibia inherited an instruction system of apartheid from South Africa in 1990 which was characterized by inequalities in footings of the distribution of resources, where entree to acquisition was a precedence for a few Whites, and where quality of instruction offered was non considered. In mending the instruction characterized by some of the above characteristics every bit good as seting it at the criterion of international degree, the new authorities declared righty in Article 20 of the state ‘s fundamental law that all people should hold entree to instruction and basic instruction shall be free and compulsory. Article 20 provinces: All individuals shall hold the right to instruction. Primary instruction shall be mandatory and the province shall supply sensible installations to render effectual this right for every occupant within Namibia, by set uping and keeping State schools at which primary instruction will be provided free of charge. Children shall non be allowed to go forth school until they have completed their primary instruction or have attained the age of 16 old ages, whichever is the Oklahoman, save in so far as this may be authorized by act of Parliament on evidences of wellness or other considerations refering to public involvement. 4.1.2 The aims of the National Education Policy Act: The aims of the National Education Policy Act of 2001 as promulgated in December 2001, primary aims are: To supply for the proviso of accessible, just, qualitative and democratic national instruction service. To supply for the constitution of the National Advisory Council on Education, the National Examination, Assessment and Certification Board, Regional Education Forums, School Boards, the Education Development Fund. The constitution of schools and inns. The constitution of the Teaching Service and the Teaching Service Committee. Provision for incidental affairs.USA4.1.1 The purposes and ends of the USA educational system: The USA is proud to supply equal educational chances for all its scholars and boasts about go forthing no kids behind. There is no federal system of instruction, and each province and local school territory within the US has the constitutional right to set up its ain signifier of instruction. There are nevertheless, togss of communality running throughout most of the instruction systems in the state, including course of study, answerability criterions, and teacher enfranchisement ordinances, in add-on to the sharing of many challenges linked to poverty, linguistic communication diverseness, gender, and race or ethnicity factors. ( Steyn & A ; Wolhuter, 2008:300 ) The US system of instruction provides free public instruction, from kindergarten through to rate 12, for all pupils. The US does non hold a centralised system of instruction, with most determinations left to single provinces and local authorities, provided their policies do non belie the US Constitution. Each province retained control over instruction within its boundary lines, provided its educational policies did non violate commissariats in the Constitution, which by and large focused on issues of civil rights. In some cases the Federal Government has become straight involved in province and local instruction sing the separation of faith from authorities maps and the protection of civil rights related to race, gender, disablement and due procedure ( Steyn & A ; Wolhuter, 2008:310 ) . However, the national purposes of instruction in the US refer. Differences in the look of values besides consequence what states decide are the national purposes of instruction and on how those are articulated. The most normally articulated purposes across the 16 states include: Developing the capacities of the person Promoting equal chance Fixing immature people for work Establishing a foundation for farther and higher instruction Supplying cognition, accomplishments and understanding Promoting citizenship ( sometimes in the signifier of advancing democracy or community ) , and Sing cultural heritage ( or literacy ) . Harmonizing to ( Steyn & A ; Wolhuter, 2008:326 ) the NCLB programme is designated to accomplish exalted ends outlined in the programme ‘s four ‘common-sense pillars ‘ , which include: – Stronger answerability for consequences through state-wide answerability systems based on one-year proving for all pupils ; – more freedom for provinces and communities through more flexible usage of their federal instruction financess ; – required usage of proved instruction methods supported by scientifically-based research ; and – more picks for parents by leting pupils assigned to neglecting schools to go to better public schools, with transit disbursals paid by the failing school ( US Department of Education, 2004b ) . 4.1.2 The aims of National Act: The aims of the Public Law 107 – 110, 107th Congress, No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and Table of Contents of Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 lineation: To Bettering the academic accomplishment of the disadvantaged. Teacher and chief preparation and recruiting fund. Implementing board policies that define public simple and secondary school operations, including such authorizations as graduation demands and class content ; Monitoring and roll uping informations to find conformity with province mandated maps and answerability plans ; Recommending for public instruction while supplying information to province legislative assemblies and citizens sing instruction ; Supplying proficient aid to the schools, such as aid construing English for Speakers of Other linguistic communications demands ; and Distributing province financess to local school territories.StructureSOUTH AFRICA 4.2.1 Structure for instruction and preparation degrees and plans: The National Qualifications Framework is a new attack to the organisation of instruction and preparation in South Africa after 1994. The NQF is an instrument to implement an outcomes-based incorporate attack to instruction and preparation. This become a world and provides chances to larn, irrespective of age, fortunes and the degree of instruction and developing a scholar may hold. This is called lifelong acquisition. The General Education and Training ( GET ) forms the first set and degree 1 of the NQF. This set consists of Grades 1-9 of the formal schooling and forms the nine old ages of compulsory schooling. The Foundation Phase, Grades 1-3 includes the early childhood development stage and forms the first portion of the GET set of the NQF. The overall end of the course of study is to supply kids with the chances to develop to their full potency as active responsible and fulfilled citizens who can play a constructive function in a democratic, non-racist and just society. In the intermediate stage, grades 4-6, while still extremely contextualized and mostly incorporate. Rate 7-9, the Senior Phase is the last stage in the GET set. In this stage the scholar should be progressively able to ground independently of concrete stuffs and experience. Combined schools offering all stages as mentioned above under one roof. 4.2.2 The course of study and distinction: A new policy for the constitution of new course of study for schools was announced by the curate of instruction on 24 March 1997. The new course of study is known as course of study 2005. The new attack known as OBE is linked to the NQF. The new course of study was introduced in class 1 in 1998 and in grade 2 in 1999. The debut of the course of study 2005 in the senior classs was in July 1998 postponed by the curate of instruction due a deficit of resources and financess. In the new course of study, specific larning countries are identified for the different degrees of the NQF. In add-on to the larning countries, there are besides three types of results, viz. critical results, larning results and specific results. The Foundation Phase makes proviso for 3 learning plans: 1. Communication, literacy and linguistic communication larning 2. Numeracy and Mathematicss 3. Life Orientation. The Intermediate Phase makes proviso for 5 acquisition plans and the Senior Phase provides the following 8 LA ‘s: 1.Communication, literacy and linguistic communication acquisition. 2.Human and Social Sciences. 3.Numeracy and Mathematicss 4.Technology. 5.Economic and Management Science. 6.Life Orientation 7.Arts and Culture 8.Natural Sciences Namibia 4.2.1 Structure for instruction and preparation degrees and plans: The formal system in Namibian schools consists of 12 old ages of schooling broken down as follows: Four old ages of lower primary utilizing mother lingua as the medium of direction ; Three old ages of upper primary ( English as medium of direction starts in Grade 4 and goes up to rate 12 ) ; 3 old ages of junior secondary ; and, 2 old ages of senior secondary. However, the formal school system may besides be divided into the undermentioned phases some of which have combined stages: Pre-primary stage, caters for the under 6 old ages age group. Primary Phase, Lower primary, grades 1 to 4 and upper primary classs 5 to 7. Secondary Phase, Junior secondary, grades 8 – 10 and senior secondary, grades 11 – 12. Combined Schools offering both primary, junior secondary or senior secondary classs under one roof. 4.2.2 The course of study and distinction: A new prescribed course of study was introduced in 1996. I 1998, new course of study panels and topic, some of which have already been completed ( Ministry of Education, Namibia, 2006 ) . The chief countries in primary schools are linguistic communication accomplishments such as speech production, reading and composing and composing in English and in Namibian linguistic communications ; societal accomplishments such as societal surveies, spiritual and moral instruction ; humanistic disciplines and trade like pulling, music and dance ; physical instruction such as hygiene, horticulture and handicraft, and mathematics and environmental scientific discipline ( Craelius et al. , 1995:690 ) . In the junior secondary schools the chief countries covered are linguistic communication, spiritual and moral instruction, scientific discipline and mathematics, art and athleticss and prevocational accomplishments from which two of the following are chosen: domestic scientific discipline, woodwork, metalwork, commercialism, needlecraft or dressmaking and agricultural production. The senior secondary schools offer linguistic communication surveies, humanistic disciplines and societal scientific disciplines, mathematics, physical instruction and originative, proficient and vocational surveies as nucleus topics. Options are broad, but are dependent on the field of survey chosen and the handiness of physical, instructional and human resources in the school ( Steyn & A ; Wolhuter, 2008:151-152 ) . USA 4.2.1 Structure for Education and preparation degrees and plans: The construction for learning in the US includes 12 old ages for regular schooling, followed by a four phase system of higher instruction. This system is normally preceded by one or two old ages of pre-school instruction ( US Department of Education, 2005 ) . Pre-School: Most provinces require some sort of pre-school and / or kindergarten programme before leting pupils to inscribe in the first twelvemonth of an simple or primary school. Pre-school plans normally occur from one or two old ages before entry. They have to be between the ages of three to five. Twelve Old ages of Formal Schooling: Formal primary instruction, frequently refer to as simple instruction, lasts for the first five to six old ages. The staying old ages of this 12 twelvemonth rhythm consist of 3 to 4 old ages of in-between school or junior high school, followed by three to four old ages of senior high school. Depending on local and or province guidelines, a pupil would go to: 8 old ages of simple and 4 old ages of high school ; 4 old ages of simple, 4 old ages of center and 4 old ages of high school ; 6 old ages of simple, 3 old ages of junior high, and 3 old ages of senior high school ; or 6 old ages of simple and 6 old ages of combined junior or senior high school. Higher Education: After successfully finishing 12 old ages of formal schooling and having a high school sheepskin pupils may take to go to: a. A two twelvemonth vocational institute B. Two twelvemonth junior community college, or c. A four twelvemonth undergraduate college or university plan. 4.2.2 The course of study and distinction: The simple, in-between and or junior high schools enroll pupils from ages 6 to 12, and include direction in the cardinal accomplishments or reading, composing and arithmetic. Foreign linguistic communications are normally introduced at the in-between school degree. Depending on local and province ordinances, high schools normally require pupils to inscribe in English, Mathematics, General Science, Social Studies and Physical Education classs. The course of study may besides include two old ages of a foreign linguistic communication, applied concern classs, engineering and the humanistic disciplines. After finishing 12 old ages of formal instruction, pupils may use for either a 4 twelvemonth grade allowing establishment or a two twelvemonth junior or community college.Similarities of the instruction systems of South Africa, Namibia and USA:Equal chances for all without bias. Pre-school plan. Junior and Senior stages. Third instruction Particular and inclusive instruction Mother lingua instruction Combined schools 12 old ages of formal instruction Pre-school under 6 old ages of age Lifelong acquisition Fundamentalss accomplishments, reading and authorship and numeracy.Differences:SOUTH AFRICASpecific larning countries in GET Phase. Structure: GET Band: Classs 1 to 3 Foundation Phase Classs 4 to 6 Intermediate Phase Classs 7 to 9 Senior Phase FET – Grades 10 – 12.NamibiaFocus on Namibian linguistic communications accomplishments, societal accomplishments, spiritual and moral surveies. Structure: Lower Primary: classs 1 to 4, Upper Primary: classs 5 to 7 Secondary: classs 8 to 10. Senior Secondary: classs 11 – 12USA1.Focus on English, Mathematics, General Science, Social surveies and Physical instruction. Two old ages of foreign linguistic communications, applied concern classs, engineering and humanistic disciplines. 2.Structure: Options: 8 old ages simple school, 4 old ages high school 4 old ages simple, 4 old ages in-between high school and 4 old ages senior high school. old ages simple, 3 old ages junior high, 3 old ages senior high. 6 old ages simple, 6 old ages combined junior and senior high school.6.Reasons for possible similarities and differences in the 3 instruction systems:Throughout the universe, basicss of instruction are addressed. These include basic accomplishments such as reading, composing and numeracy. Equal chances given to our immature scholars address the issues of human rights within each of the three states mentioned. Education is a cosmopolitan instrument and hence the acquisition is and remains womb-to-tomb larning. Mother tongue instruction is an imperative tool for scholars that come from the same human ecology, part or province. It is hence really of import to learn the same linguistic communication where kids are being educated. Some of the differences could turn to the issue of population. In the first universe states, it is a given that the population are get downing to settle in whilst in the 3rd universe states like South Africa and Namibia, the population is of all time increasing. A high per centum of the population is below the active economic age. South Africa ‘s and Namibia ‘s urbanisation are in the beginning stage. All three states experience a high inflow of other states citizens. The educational demands of every state are addressed. Cipher is excluded. The constitutional right of every kid is adhered to. Peoples are inspired by womb-to-tomb scholars. Throughout the universe the demands of people differ. The ground for this is the population of each state and the demographics of that state. Specific demands of states differ that is why instruction will differ. The USA is a first universe state with extremely specialised people, Namibia and South Africa though do non hold the substructure to compare with the USA. 7. Decision The degree of trouble of the different states to cover with the expected challenges differs to a big extend. A large difference exists with respect to the degree that instruction systems of the different states are prepared to efficaciously cover with challenges of the twenty-first Century. It is of import that the authoritiess, involvement groups and persons in the societies of immerging states takes duty to place the cloth of the community sing the demographical, geographical, socio-economical, scientific and technological, political and philosophical inclinations. It must take topographic point in such a mode that the peculiar state can efficaciously cover with the expected challenges of the twenty-first Century. 8. Bliography 8.1 Quality Primary Education, Program Overview and Strategic Objectives. hypertext transfer protocol: // Date of entree: 10 February 2010. 8.2 David Kerr, 1999. Citizenship Education: an International Comparison. hypertext transfer protocol: // Date of entree: 09 February 2010. 8.3 Professional & A ; Associates hypertext transfer protocol: // Date of entree 09 February 2010. 8.4 Steyn, H.J. , Wolhuter C.C. 2000. Education Systems, Challenges of the twenty-first Century. Noordbrug. Keurkopie Uitgewers. 8.5 Steyn, H.J. , Steyn S.C. , & A ; De Waal E.A.S. , 2001. The South African Education System, Core features. Noordbrug. Keurkopie Uitgewers. 8.6 Basic Education Namibia. hypertext transfer protocol: // Date of entree: 12 February 2010. 8.7 PUBLIC LAW 107-110-JAN. 8, 2002 115 STAT. 1425 hypertext transfer protocol: // Date of entree: 12 February 2010. 8.8 hypertext transfer protocol: // Date of entree: 09 February 2010.

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